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Barnes' Notes on the Bible
Compare the history in Kings (the marginal reference). Both accounts were probably drawn from a common source. The writer of Kings treated the points of civil and historic importance, the later author of Chronicles collected the notices of the part taken in the transactions by the sacred order to which he probably belonged.
1And in the seventh year Jehoiada strengthened himself, and took the captains of hundreds, Azariah the son of Jeroham, and Ishmael the son of Jehohanan, and Azariah the son of Obed, and Maaseiah the son of Adaiah, and Elishaphat the son of Zichri, into covenant with him.
The five names do not occur in Kings; only, and incidentally, the five divisions of the royal guard (2 Kings 11:5 note).
2And they went about in Judah, and gathered the Levites out of all the cities of Judah, and the chief of the fathers of Israel, and they came to Jerusalem.
Jehoiada was unwilling to trust the success of the revolution wholly and entirely to the royal body-guard. Accordingly, the captains collected from the cities of Judah a strong body of Levites and the chief of the fathers of Israel (i. e. "Judah," see 2 Chronicles 20:34 note) who were brought up to Jerusalem.
3And all the congregation made a covenant with the king in the house of God. And he said unto them, Behold, the king's son shall reign, as the LORD hath said of the sons of David.
By "all the congregation" here is meant the persons referred to in 2 Chronicles 23:2.
4This is the thing that ye shall do; A third part of you entering on the sabbath, of the priests and of the Levites, shall be porters of the doors;
The writer of Chronicles relates the orders that were given to the Levites, the author of Kings those received by the royal body-guard (2 Kings 11:5 note).
5And a third part shall be at the king's house; and a third part at the gate of the foundation: and all the people shall be in the courts of the house of the LORD.
6But let none come into the house of the LORD, save the priests, and they that minister of the Levites; they shall go in, for they are holy: but all the people shall keep the watch of the LORD.
Keep the watch of the Lord - i. e. guard against any attempt that might be made by the Baal-worshippers to force their way through the courts into the temple.
7And the Levites shall compass the king round about, every man with his weapons in his hand; and whosoever else cometh into the house, he shall be put to death: but be ye with the king when he cometh in, and when he goeth out.
Compare 2 Kings 11:8, 2 Kings 11:11. The soldiers and the Levites in the temple were probably intermixed in about equal proportions.
8So the Levites and all Judah did according to all things that Jehoiada the priest had commanded, and took every man his men that were to come in on the sabbath, with them that were to go out on the sabbath: for Jehoiada the priest dismissed not the courses.
And took every man his men ... - i. e. the relief, already organized by Jehoiada into three bodies 2 Chronicles 23:4-5, was further strengthened by the members of the outgoing "course," who were associated in the work to be done.
9Moreover Jehoiada the priest delivered to the captains of hundreds spears, and bucklers, and shields, that had been king David's, which were in the house of God.
10And he set all the people, every man having his weapon in his hand, from the right side of the temple to the left side of the temple, along by the altar and the temple, by the king round about.
11Then they brought out the king's son, and put upon him the crown, and gave him the testimony, and made him king. And Jehoiada and his sons anointed him, and said, God save the king.
12Now when Athaliah heard the noise of the people running and praising the king, she came to the people into the house of the LORD:
13And she looked, and, behold, the king stood at his pillar at the entering in, and the princes and the trumpets by the king: and all the people of the land rejoiced, and sounded with trumpets, also the singers with instruments of musick, and such as taught to sing praise. Then Athaliah rent her clothes, and said, Treason, Treason.
At the entering in - i. e. at, or near, the opening from the main chamber of the temple into the holy of holies.
14Then Jehoiada the priest brought out the captains of hundreds that were set over the host, and said unto them, Have her forth of the ranges: and whoso followeth her, let him be slain with the sword. For the priest said, Slay her not in the house of the LORD.
15So they laid hands on her; and when she was come to the entering of the horse gate by the king's house, they slew her there.
16And Jehoiada made a covenant between him, and between all the people, and between the king, that they should be the LORD'S people.
Between him ... - In 2 Kings 11:17 the covenant is said to have been made "between the Lord," etc. To the writer of Chronicles Jehoiada was God's representative, and received the pledges of king and people.
17Then all the people went to the house of Baal, and brake it down, and brake his altars and his images in pieces, and slew Mattan the priest of Baal before the altars.
18Also Jehoiada appointed the offices of the house of the LORD by the hand of the priests the Levites, whom David had distributed in the house of the LORD, to offer the burnt offerings of the LORD, as it is written in the law of Moses, with rejoicing and with singing, as it was ordained by David.
The priests the Levites - Rather, with the versions, "the priests and the Levites." It was the duty of the priests alone to offer the burnt offerings Numbers 18:1-7, and of the Levites alone to praise God with singing and music 1 Chronicles 23:5; 1 Chronicles 25:1-7.
19And he set the porters at the gates of the house of the LORD, that none which was unclean in any thing should enter in.
20And he took the captains of hundreds, and the nobles, and the governors of the people, and all the people of the land, and brought down the king from the house of the LORD: and they came through the high gate into the king's house, and set the king upon the throne of the kingdom.
The high gate - See 2 Kings 11:19 note.
21And all the people of the land rejoiced: and the city was quiet, after that they had slain Athaliah with the sword.